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The Halo Blog

What Concealed Carry Holders Need to Know

Redefining the Active Shooter Event-What the concealed carry holder needs to know.

 "In a moment of decision,

the best thing you can do is the right thing.

The next best thing is the wrong thing.

The worst thing you can do is nothing”

– Theodore Roosevelt








There are many reasons people are looking to exercise their 2nd Amendment Rights by concealed carry. The main reason for the majority of my students, when obtaining the concealed carry permit, is to protect themselves and or loved ones. These individuals understand when a dangerous and deadly situation arises, an armed citizen response may be the difference between a dead bad guy and a national tragedy. One very specific threat that convinces people to carry is the notorious active shooter/killer event.




Active shooter/killer events are a hot topic right now. Debates are heated concerning concealed carry and firearm ownership in general. One specific debate is the ability for a concealed carry holder to carry on school campuses or other designated “gun free” zones. Eight states currently allow concealed carry holders to carry on a school campus, with Texas being the most recent state to adopt carrying on campus. Other four-year universities around the country are also debating the issues of guns on campus. Currently, in Illinois, we are not allowed to carry a concealed firearm at a “public or private community college, college or university” ((430 ILCS 66/65 (15)). Typically, a school campus is the first thought when discussing an active shooter/killer event; however, an active shooter/killer event can happen anywhere. An FBI study conducted between 2000 and 2013, showed about 24.4% occurred in a school (Federal Bureau of Investigations, 2013).




What is an active shooter/killer? The majority of Americans define an active shooter/killer event as one involving the use of a firearm like recent tragedies such as Orlando, San Bernardino or Charleston. The Department of Homeland Security defines an active shooter as – an individual actively engaged in killing or attempting to kill people in a confined and populated area; in most cases, active shooters use firearm(s) and there is no pattern or method to their selection of victims (DHS, 2008).  In light of recent events such as that in Nice, France, where a truck was the weapon of choice; Sagamihara, Japan, where a knife was the weapon of choice; and, London, England, where, again, a knife was the weapon of choice, I will refer to an active shooter/killer event as an active killer event, which encompasses all these events. Same definition just different weapon.




What does the concealed carry holder need to know?


There are many things to consider during an active killer event. The old mentality to “hunker down,” hide, and hope the active killer passes has now changed. Programs such as ALICE Training Institute’s ALICE (Alert, Lockdown, Inform, Counter, Evacuate), Tier One’s 4E’s (Educate, Evade, Escape Engage) and even recommendations from the Department of Home Land Security, are teaching civilians hiding is not the only option.




In itself, an active killer event is a high-stress, critical incident. Our natural response to a high-stress critical incident is one of the Three F’s: Fight, Flight or Freeze. Many active killer response programs taught to civilians use our natural reactions as a way to deal with the active killer event.


Freeze – hide in place,

Flight – attempt to escape,

Fight – or, without any other option, engage the active killer.



For example, ALICE Training Institute’s, ALICE is an acronym, which teaches individuals to:


Alert– Contact 911 and describe to the best of your ability the active killer, your location and the active killer’s location.

Lockdown– If unable to escape, secure your location, develop a plan to deny the active killer a target and prepare your response to the threat posed by the active killer.

Inform– Continue to inform emergency services about the location of the active killer and your location.

Counter– Consider your options; use new thinking; Evade if possible, retaliate if necessary.

Evacuate– When possible move. Scatter and spread out (ALICE Training Institute).



Similar to ALICE Training Institute, Tier One Tactical Solutions teaches the 4E’s:


Educate- Educate yourself and others and prepare for an event before it occurs. In high stress, critical events, people often revert back to their training.

Evade- If you are unable to escape, then evade. Don’t just “hunker down,” but “bunker down.” Blockade/obstruct doorways, make it difficult for the active killer to enter your location.

Escape- If safe, escape, have a route in mind.

Engage- If there is no other avenue, engage him. Disrupt and/or distract him, then FOLLOW UP! Escape if you can, overpower if you must.



Not let us introduce the armed concealed carry holder to the active killer event. As a concealed carry holder, what should we do? What could we do? In part two of Redefining the Active Shooter Event – what the concealed carry needs to know, we will explore important considerations for the armed concealed carry holder during an active killer event.




Learning from current training programs and applying them to concealed carry is one of the benefits found in taking the Illinois Concealed Carry Course taught by Halo Defense Training & Tactics. Our instructors continue to educate themselves to provide you with the most current and up to date practices. Being armed with knowledge of the applications of your firearm is just as important as being armed with your firearm.




Continue to train, stay safe and stay armed!




About the Author




Manuel Espinoza III is founder of Halo Defense Training & Tactics where he instructs the Illinois Concealed Carry Course and is in development of other firearms courses for civilians. Manuel is an active law enforcement officer in Illinois, for over 16 years. He is a member of a multi-jurisdictional SWAT team in Illinois where he is assigned as a team leader. Manuel has received numerous instructor certifications, including Firearms, Active Shooter response for both Police and Civilians along with Less Lethal Force applicationsManuel is an NRA member and NRA certified instructor. You can interact with Manuel on Facebook @HaloDefenseTactics or Twitter @HaloDefenseTactics

John Smith


January 1, 2030


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